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IMPACTPaperRec / Facts & Figures / Definitions

The following definitions are used in all project materials:

Bag Receptacle for waste and recyclables; with different capacities (usually plastic bag of 60-120 litres capacity). Collection system: Door-to-Door/ bring banks (Sees section 3).
Best Practice (BP) In the context of IMPACTPapeRec, a BP as been defined as an essential practice that should be implemented everywhere with a positive impact and crucial to success.
Biowaste Biodegradable garden and park waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises and comparable waste from food processing plants (art.3.4 of the WFD 2008/98). Also called organic waste.
Bin Receptable for waste and recyclables; equipped with a lid and often on wheels; usually emptied into the collection vehicle. There are different capacities available (for example, small bin: 6-240 litres capacity, large bin: 660-1100 litres capacity, etc.). Collection system: bring banks and Door-to-Door (See section 3).
Beverage carton Closed, paper-based composite packaging for liquid food and beverages. On average, it consists of 75% paperboard; the remainder is polymer and in some cases aluminium. Beverage carton can only be recycled in paper mills with specialized processing equipment.
Bring Bank BB (Drop-off system)
Collection of waste and recyclables in separate containers, above ground or underground, in close proximity to the end user (usually max. 100-200 m distance) and spread in sufficient number across residential areas. (see collection systems here)
Bundle Number of items, like newspapers or cardboard, fastened together with yarn or the like.
Business Small Business: Small shops and offices in household-assimilated waste collection.
Big Business: Big business companies such as big shops, supermarkets, shopping malls, logistics and distribution centres and big office buildings.
Cardboard Board (paperboard): The generic term applied to certain types of paper frequently characterized by their relatively high rigidity. The primary distinction between paper and board is normally based on thickness or “grammage” (the basis weight), though in some instances the distinction will be based on the characteristics and/or end use. For example, some materials of lower grammage, such as certain grades of folding boxboard and corrugated raw materials, are generally referred to as “board”, while other materials of higher grammage, such as certain grades of blotting, felt or drawing paper, are generally referred to as “paper”.
Packaging paper: The type of high-strenght paper used for wrapping and packing after conversion to packaging (boxes, bags). This covers both paper and board.
The sorted stream ‘cardboard’ corresponds to PfR grades 1.04.xx and 1.05.xx.
Collection The process of picking up wastes from residences, businesses, or a collection point, loading them into a vehicle, and transporting them to a processing, transfer, or disposal site (see collection systems here).
Collection shops Special “shops for secondary raw materials” where residents receive a small financial compensation.
Commingled
Dry mixed recyclables that are collected together (single-stream)
Commingled collection Paper and board collected together with other recyclables such as metal, plastics and glass in a different stream than residual waste. Also called multi-material collection (see collection systems here).
Composting Biological decomposition of solid organic materials by bacteria, fungi, and other organisms into a soil-like product.
Container Receptacle for recyclables; of 1500-4000 litres capacity; often used for collection of recyclables at a bring bank; usually emptied into the collection vehicle. Collection system: bring bank (See separate collection here)
Consumer Private end-user. Different building structures (detached house, town house, apartment building). Source: households.
Data Quantitative and qualitative information gathered from the studies territories.
Digestion plant Anaerobic biological decomposition of solid organic materials into biogas, consisting of methane, and digestate which can be used as fertilizer.
Door-to-Door (kerbside collection-pick up system) Direct collection of materials from individual households (or shops), either from front door or kerb. (See separate collection here)
Drop-off system The waste generator takes accumulated waste by foot or by car to a central location and drops it there into containers. It can be a bring bank or a recycling yard.
DREC (Destination RECycling) Quantity of collected waste effectively sent to recycling, including: municipal waste streams separated at source & collected separately (one homogeneous waste stream not mixed with other waste streams) with the purpose of recycling; the output from sorting facilities (including bulky waste sorting centres) going directly to facilities for recycling; the output from mechanical biological treatment installation going directly to facilities for recycling.
Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is an environmental policy principle in which the producer’s responsibility for managing the product and reducing its environmental impact is extended across the whole life cycle of the product – from the selection of materials and design of the product to its end-of-life, especially regarding take-back, recycling and disposal.  EPR can be executed as an individual system (producers organise own systems) or in a collective system (producers decide to collaborate and to exert responsibility collectively through Producer Responsibility Organisation).
External comparison Comparison between different territories
Good Practice (GP) In the context of IMPACTPapeRec, a GP as been defined as a practice that brings further better results but might not be possible to be implemented everywhere, it brings a positive impact only under certain conditions and it is also not crucial to success in some cases.
Graphic paper Paper made for printing text or images (newspapers, magazines, office paper, etc). The sorted stream ´graphic paper´corresponds to paper for recycling grade 1.11.00 (according to the European List of Standard Grades of Paper and Board for Recycling EN 643)
Green waste Biodegradable garden and park waste. Green waste is part of biowaste.
Household Private end-user
Household waste Waste originating from households (regardless if it is collected door-to-door, through bring banks, recycling yards etc.). Also called domestic waste.
Informal sector Existence of scavengers and waste pickers, picking up recyclables, in urban settlements and landfills.
Internal comparison Comparison of status in year 0 to year X in one territory
Landfill Controlled dump
A planned landfill that incorporates to some extent some of the features of a sanitary landfill: siting with respect to hydrogeological suitability, grading, compaction in some cases, leachate control, partial gas management, regular (not usually daily) cover, access control,
basic record-keeping, and controlled waste picking.
Sanitary landfill
An engineered method of disposing of solid waste on land, in a manner that meets most of the standard specifications, including sound siting, extensive site preparation, proper leachate and gas management and monitoring, compaction, daily and final cover, complete access control, and record-keeping.
Uncontroled/Illegal landfill
The dumping of waste and recyclables illegally instead of using an authorised method such as kerbside collection or using an authorised rubbish dump. It is the illegal deposit of any waste onto land, including waste and reyclebles dumped or tipped on a site with no licence to accept mixed waste.
Large container Receptacle for waste and recyclables with different capacities; often used for commercial and industrial collection and at recycling yards. Collection system: Recycling yards (see collection systems here).
Materials recovery facility (MRF) Waste processing facility that combines mechanical sorting with a form of biological treatment such as composting, biodrying or anaerobic digestion. Usually treatment of mixed waste
Mechanical biological treatment plant Waste processing facility that combines mechanical sorting with a form of biological treatment such as composting, biodrying or anaerobic digestion. Usually treatment of mixed waste.
Municipal recycling rate (paper recycling rate)
Recycling rate = % (Tonnage of municipal waste recycled / Tonnage of total municipal waste arising). Recycling generally includes material recycling, composting and anaerobic digestion.
For paper and board the recycling rate is calculated as a percentage with the DREC methodology: Tonnage of paper & cardboard recycled / Tonnage of total paper & cardboard in municipal waste (unless mentioned otherwise). Contrary to the general definition, composting and anaerobic digestion is excluded for paper & board recycling rate.
(Note: Total amount of municipal waste does not include waste that is not collected (littering, house firing, etc.)
Municipal solid waste Waste collected by eighter on behalf of municipality authorities or directly by the private sector (business or private non-profit institutions) not on behalf of municipalities. The bulk of the waste stream orignates from households, although similar wastes from sources such as commerce, offices, public institutions and selected municipal services are also included. It also includes bulky waste but excludes waste from municipal sewage networks, end-of-life vehicles and municipal construction and demolition waste.

Domestic waste/household waste:

Waste and recyclables originating from households (regardless of wthether it is collected door to door, through bring banks, recycling yards etc.).

Non-paper components According to EN 643, non-paper component is any foreign matter included in the paper and board fraction for recycling which is not a constituent part of the product and can be separated by dry sorting, such as metal, plastic, glass, textiles, wood, sand and building materials, synthetic materials”
Offices Big and small offices of large companies, life agencies, insurance broker, estate agents, banks, lawyers, freelancers, medical practice, consultants, etc. The big offices of large companies tipically have service contracts with traders of PfR or container service companies and do not participate at the municipal collection system.
Source: big/small businesses
Organic waste Biodegradable waste. Consists of green waste from gardens and parks and of food waste from households.
Packaging paper The type of high-strength paper used for wrapping and packing after conversion to packaging (boxes, bags). This covers both paper and board.
Paper & Board Any product based on paper and/or board, printed and/or converted to fulfil its designated purpose.
Paper & Board plant Special recycling plant, using paper for recycling as raw material for the production of paper, board or moulded fibre products.
Paper for Recycling (recovered paper*)
Paper and board material collected separately at source for intended use a secondary raw material for recycling only. Paper and board material collected with other recyclables is also called Paper for Recycling after sorting and when intended for use as a secondary raw material for recycling (Note: in this document PfR means PfR separately collected at source unless specifically mentioned otherwise).
* recovered paper was the standard term in the past but has been largely replaced by the term Paper for Recycling in Europe.
Paper product Any product based on paper and/or board, printed and/or converted to fulfil its designated purpose. It may contain inks, varnishes, lamination, any type of bonding (e.g. glue, staples and threads) and non-paper material, such as product samples
Producer Responsibility Organisation A Producer Responsibility Organisation is an entity set up in collective EPR schemes to implement the EPR principle in the name of all the adhering companies.
Processing Preparing municipal waste and recyclable materials for subsequent use or management, using processes such as manual, baling, magnetic separation, crushing and shredding. The term is also used for separation of mixed waste streams.
Recyclables Materials that can be reprocessed into feedstock for new products. Common examples are paper, cardboard, glass, aluminium and plastic.
Recycling The process of transforming materials into raw materials for manufacturing new products, which may or may not be similar to the original product
Recycling plant Industrial plant, using secondary raw materials, such as glass, plastics, cardboard, paper, metals etc. for production of new products.
Recycling Rate Recycling rate = % (Tonnage of municipal waste recycled / Tonnage of total municipal waste arising). Recycling generally includes material recycling, composting and anaerobic digestion.
For paper and cardboard the recycling rate is calculated as a percentage with the DREC methodology: Tonnage of paper & cardboard recycled / Tonnage of total paper & cardboard in municipal waste (unless mentioned otherwise). Contrary to the general definition, composting and anaerobic digestion is excluded for paper & cardboard recycling rate.
(Note: Total amount of municipal waste does not include waste that is not collected (littering, house firing, etc.)
Recycling Yard (Drop-off system)
Centralised site authorised by the authorities for the separate collection
of domestic waste and recyclables. Usually qualified staff available. (See section 3)
Residual Waste Waste that is not separately collected, also called refuse or mixed waste.
Restaurants Business that provides food service, such as restaurants, pubs, cafés, fast food. Material: mixed paper & board, packaging, special paper products.
Source: small and big businesses (household assimilated collection possible).
Retail Shops selling consumer goods, such as food, clothing, cosmetics, electronics, books or others. Household assimilated waste collection. These tipically have service contracts with traders of PfR or container service companies and do not participate at the municipal collection system, specially big retailers companies. Source: small and big businesses.
Selective collection For the purpose of this project the term selective collection is used to characterize separate collection into graphic paper and packaging cardboard (see collection systems here).
Separate collection Setting aside recyclable materials from the waste stream before they are collected with other municipal solid waste, to facilitate recycling. In addition, separate collection of compostablematerials, to facilitate composting (see collection systems here).
Sorting station The sorting plant consists of one or more mechanical separation stages (e.g. screen, magnetic separator) and might be even equipped with optical sorting units (VIS and NIR), in most cases combined with manual sorting. If manual sorting serves mainly the purpose of a quality control, it is termed automated sorting.
Waste to energy plant (WTE) Facility that uses solid waste materials (processed or raw) to produce energy. WTE plants include incinerators that produce steam for district heating or industrial use, or that generate electricity.
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